Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs, Culture and Sports – Greece General Secretary of Culture Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments (DSNAM)
The marble surface has suffered from cracking, flaking, detached fragments, disintegration and soot depositing. Due to the monument’s location, in the center of Athens, the main cause of deterioration is environmental pollution, which has caused the decomposition of the marble to a considerable depth and has transformed it gypsum. Furthermore, the accumulation of soot has caused colour alteration and the formation of solid black crusts.
Although this small tomb lacks a vaulted ceiling and an elaborate façade, it is directly associated with the main Macedonian Tombs of the area. It consists of two main rooms and its walls are covered with painted plaster. During the winter period and the rainy season the surrounding area floods; as a consequence the monument is filled with water up to 2 meters high. The wall paintings of the tomb are discolored and covered with crystallized salts and algae. (DSANM)
The church is located in southern Crete, situated right on a sandy beach. Due to the sea level rise during the last century and its immediate proximity to the sea, the monument has suffered from coastal erosion. Decay derives from both marine aerosols transported by the wind and the moisture rising from the ground directly onto the structural elements of the monument, as well as its wall paintings.
Resources: Directorate of Conservation of Ancient and Modern Monuments(DSNAM), Greece
The monument is located in a wooded environment, among the mountains. The combination of intense rainfalls throughout the year and the high levels of relative humidity is responsible for salt dissolution and crystallization within the porous of the structural materials of the monument, such as stones and plaster, resulting in its gradual decomposition. Furthermore, it is observed that a hard layer of salts has been formed on the surface of the murals inside the church.
The inside of the church is decorated with byzantine wall paintings and a wood carved altar. The main threat for the integrity of the monument is the fact that the Church is sliding extremely slowly along side with the ground. The fragile uneven foundation of the monument is getting more vulnerable due to heavy rainfalls causing gradual sedimentations. Furthermore, seismic activity in the area has caused severe problems to the monuments structure, demanding for immediate restoration. (DSANM)
The close-proximity to river Ermitsa is responsible for the burial of the monument, depositing mud and sand on the surrounding fields. Furthermore, the rise of the aquifer level in the area has put the monument underwater since its excavation. This resulted in the corrosion of its structural elements and the need for a permanent draining mechanism in order to keep the monument accessible to researchers and visitors.
Resources: DSANM, Greece